Homeownership rates

In the United States, homeownership is often assumed to be an important means of acquiring wealth. However, experts have increasingly pointed out that neighborhood and regional housing markets can experience downturns, during which homeowners can lose their accumulated equity.[i] Moreover, decades old policies and practices hamper minorities from benefitting from strong housing markets, which has contributed to weaker wealth accumulation for people of color who own homes.[ii] Still, homeownership can be an important means of achieving residential stability, and has been shown to be related to improved psychological health and greater participation in social and political activities.[iii] Studies have revealed that discriminatory practices in the real estate and banking industries are still common and present an obstacle to homeownership for many people of color.[iv]

Homeownership rate by race/ethnicity, Orleans Parish, 2012-2016

Homeownership rate, 2012-2016

[i] Mayer, C. (2011). Housing bubbles: A survey. Annual Review of Economics, 3(1), 559-577. Retrieved from https://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/mygsb/faculty/research/pubfiles/5636/MayerHousingBubbles.pdf

[ii] Kijakazi, K., Brooks, R. M. A., Paul, M., Price, A. E., Hamilton, D., & Darity Jr, W. A. (2016). The color of wealth in the nation’s capital. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/85341/2000986-2-the-color-of-wealth-in-the-nations-capital_7.pdf; De La Cruz-Viesca, M., Chen, Z., Ong, P. M., Hamilton, D., & Darity Jr, W. A. (2016). The color of wealth in Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/besol/Color_of_Wealth_Report.pdf; Muñoz, A. P., Kim, M., Chang, M., Jackson, R., Hamilton, D., & Darity, W. A. (2015). The color of wealth in Boston. Retrieved from https://www.bostonfed.org/publications/onetime-pubs/color-of-wealth.aspx

[iii] Rohe, W. M., & Lindblad, M. (2013). Reexamining the social benefits of homeownership after the housing crisis. Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University. Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/hbtl-04.pdf

[iv] The Urban Institute. (n.d.). Exposing housing discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/features/exposing-housing-discrimination

Close

Low Birth Weight

Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds. Infants born with low birth weights are more likely to experience developmental problems, are more likely to die in the first year of life, and are also more likely to develop diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure later in life. Studies have shown that improving the mother’s nutrition and access to prenatal care can help reduce the risk of low birth weight pregnancies.[i] However, studies have also shown that racial bias in how medical professionals interact with African American patients — much of it unconscious — results in poorer quality of care for African American patients.[ii] Moreover, research has determined that birth outcomes are influenced by factors occurring even before pregnancy. Chronic stress, associated with racial discrimination over one’s lifetime, can increase the risk of low birth weight pregnancies.[iii]

Percent of babies born with low birth weight by race/ethnicity, Orleans Parish, 2010-2016

HealthCountyRankings.org was used for parish estimates, CDC Wonder Tool was used for Louisiana and United States estimates.

more +

Percent of babies born with low birth weight, 2010-2016

HealthCountyRankings.org was used for parish estimates, CDC Wonder Tool was used for Louisiana and United States estimates.

more +

[i] Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. (2012). Child health USA 2012. Rockville, Maryland: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa12/; Zeka, A., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. (2008). The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts. Environmental Health, 7(1), 60.

[ii] Elliott, A. M., Alexander, S. C., Mescher, C. A., Mohan, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2016). Differences in physicians’ verbal and nonverbal communication with black and white patients at the end of life. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 51(1), 1-8. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.07.008; Cooper, L. A., Roter, D. L., Carson, K. A., Beach, M. C., Sabin, J. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Inui, T. S. (2012). The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 979-987.

[iii] Rosenthal, L., & Lobel, M. (2011). Explaining racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes: Unique sources of stress for black american women during pregnancy. Social Science Medicine, 72(6), 977-83. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21345565; Kramer, M. R., & Hogue, C. R. (2009). What causes racial disparities in very preterm birth? A biosocial perspective. Epidemiologic Reviews, 31(1), 84-98. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361938/

Close

Third grade students at each achievement level, English Language Arts (ELA)

It has been widely reported that until third grade, children learn to read; after third grade, they read to learn.[i] For that reason, reading skills in third grade are considered an important early warning indicator of academic performance. Reading skills in third grade are highly predictive of future academic performance.[ii] Third grade children, with limited reading abilities, will have a harder time keeping up with other students across multiple subjects — including math, science, and other languages.

Achievement level of third graders in ELA, Orleans Parish and RSDNO, 2018

Notes: The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) is a standardized test that assesses English Language Arts (ELA), among other subjects. For more information, visit: http://www.louisianabelieves.com/measuringresults/grades-3-8-assessments

more +

Percent of third graders achieving a passing score in ELA, 2018

Notes: The Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) is a standardized test that assesses English Language Arts (ELA), among other subjects. For more information, visit: http://www.louisianabelieves.com/measuringresults/grades-3-8-assessments

more +

[i] The Boston Foundation. (2014). The Boston indicators project: Third grade reading proficiency. Retrieved from http://www.bostonindicators.org/indicators/education/4-8high-academic-achievement/4-8-2third-grade-reading-proficiency; The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2013). Early Warning Confirmed: A research update on third-grade reading. Baltimore, MD: Author. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/resources/early-warning-confirmed/; Hanover Research. (2014). Critical academic indicators: What to look for in your students to ensure future success. Retrieved from http://www.hanoverresearch.com/2014/08/26/critical-academic-indicators-what-to-look-for-in-your-students-to-ensure-future-success/?i=k-12-education&utm_source=K12%20-%20August%202014-%20Prospects&utm_campaign=K12%20jULY%20Prospects&utm_ medium=email

[ii] Foley, E., Mishook, J., Thompson, J., Kubiak, M., Supovitz, J., & Rhude-Faust, M. K. (2008). Beyond test scores: leading indicators for education. Retrieved from http://annenberginstitute.org/publications/beyond-test-scores-leading-indicators-education

Close

High school graduation rates

Obtaining a high school diploma is an important milestone marking a successful transition into adulthood. High school graduates tend to be healthier, earn higher incomes, vote more, and face fewer obstacles as they enter adulthood. High school graduation rates are also an important indicator of school performance for parents, policymakers, and concerned community members. According to research by the Alliance for Excellent Education, “Graduation rates must be a cornerstone of high school accountability and used in decisionmaking about the targeting of resources and interventions to low-performing schools.”[i] The Louisiana Department of Education includes high school cohort graduation rates in the calculation of public high school performance scores as a means to public hold schools accountable for graduating their students on time.[ii]

Percent of students graduating public high school on time by race/ethnicity, Orleans Parish, 2017

The Recovery School District (RSD) was created in 2003 by the Louisiana Legislature with the mission of turning around the lowest performing schools in the state. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the levee failures, the Louisiana Legislature took action to hand over the majority of Orleans Parish public schools to the state RSD. For more information, visit: https://www.louisianabelieves.com/schools/recovery-school-district/

more +

Percent of students graduating public high school on time, 2017

The Recovery School District (RSD) was created in 2003 by the Louisiana Legislature with the mission of turning around the lowest performing schools in the state. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the levee failures, the Louisiana Legislature took action to hand over the majority of Orleans Parish public schools to the state RSD. For more information, visit: https://www.louisianabelieves.com/schools/recovery-school-district/

more +

[i] Louisiana Department of Education. (n. d.). School performance scores. Retrieved from https://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/library/performance-scores

[ii] Louisiana Department of Education. (2014). Louisiana cohort graduation rate continues to increase. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/newsroom/news-releases/2014/07/11/louisiana-cohort-graduation-rate-continues-to-increase

Close